Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 23 August 2017

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Gadus macrocephalus

SPECIES NAME(S)

Pacific cod

COMMON NAMES

cod, codfish, gray cod, P-cod, Pacific cod


ANALYSIS

Strengths

Spawning biomass for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands cod is maintaining above its target level and expected to continue increasing. Total allowable catch for 2013 (260,000 t) was set well below below scientists’ acceptable biological catch limit (307,000 t), and catch compliance has been strong. The fishery is independently monitored and reviewed to maintain MSC certification held by some participants. Management measures are in place to limit impacts on protected species and habitats. Research is continuing to evaluate effectiveness of those protective measures, and the need for additional measures.

Weaknesses

1) Cod fisheries may compete with Steller sea lions for food (however, this potential impact is mitigated by management measures). 2) The fishery employs bottom contact gear, which can damage benthic habitats (however, there are protections and limitations in place to mitigate those impacts). 3) Budget cuts over recent years have limited portions of the normal stock assessment surveys. Analysis indicates that further reductions in survey effort will hinder groundfish management capabilities, with potential adverse impacts to the biological and economical stability of the fishery. 4) Oceanographic research indicates that acidification (driven by global CO2 emissions) is progressing rapidly in the Bering Sea and other high-latitude waters, potentially undercutting future fishery productivity.

Options

1) Support ongoing research to assess the vulnerability of ecologically sensitive areas, and any further provisions (if needed) to adequately preserve critical areas. 2) Advocate restoration of survey funding to ensure a firm scientific foundation for fishery management. 3) Support monitoring and research on ocean acidification and its potential impacts on fisheries in Alaska, and policies to restrain the emissions that drive this problem.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 8

Managers Compliance:

10

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

≥ 8

Future Health:

≥ 6


RECOMMENDATIONS

CATCHERS & REGULATORS

1. Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

RETAILERS & SUPPLY CHAIN

1. Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Alaska (Pacific) cod - freezer longline:

    Withdrawn

  • Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Pacific cod:

    MSC Recertified

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
Aleutian Islands US Alaska United States Bottom-set longlines
Bottom trawls
Pots
Vertical Lines

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 3 January 2014

Strengths

Spawning biomass for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands cod is maintaining above its target level and expected to continue increasing. Total allowable catch for 2013 (260,000 t) was set well below below scientists’ acceptable biological catch limit (307,000 t), and catch compliance has been strong. The fishery is independently monitored and reviewed to maintain MSC certification held by some participants. Management measures are in place to limit impacts on protected species and habitats. Research is continuing to evaluate effectiveness of those protective measures, and the need for additional measures.

Weaknesses

1) Cod fisheries may compete with Steller sea lions for food (however, this potential impact is mitigated by management measures). 2) The fishery employs bottom contact gear, which can damage benthic habitats (however, there are protections and limitations in place to mitigate those impacts). 3) Budget cuts over recent years have limited portions of the normal stock assessment surveys. Analysis indicates that further reductions in survey effort will hinder groundfish management capabilities, with potential adverse impacts to the biological and economical stability of the fishery. 4) Oceanographic research indicates that acidification (driven by global CO2 emissions) is progressing rapidly in the Bering Sea and other high-latitude waters, potentially undercutting future fishery productivity.

Options

1) Support ongoing research to assess the vulnerability of ecologically sensitive areas, and any further provisions (if needed) to adequately preserve critical areas. 2) Advocate restoration of survey funding to ensure a firm scientific foundation for fishery management. 3) Support monitoring and research on ocean acidification and its potential impacts on fisheries in Alaska, and policies to restrain the emissions that drive this problem.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Monitor fishery and management system for any changes that could jeopardize MSC re-certification.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. Support the sustainability achievements of this fishery by sourcing this product, and ensure that the producers are aware that sustainability certification played a role in your decision to source this product.

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Please provide links to publicly available information on this fishery via the “Feedback” tab.
2. To apply to develop/update content for this profile register and log in and follow the links to “contribute to” / “edit this profile”. If you need more information, please use the “Contact Us” button above, and reference the full name of this profile.

United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 28 June 2016

Improvement Recommendations to Catchers & Regulators

1. Please provide links to publicly available information on this fishery via the “Feedback” tab.
2. To apply to develop/update content for this profile register and log in and follow the links to “contribute to” / “edit this profile”. If you need more information, please use the “Contact Us” button above, and reference the full name of this profile.

Recommendations to Retailers & Supply Chain

1. This profile is not currently at the top of our priority list for development/update, and we can’t at this time provide an accurate prediction of when it will be developed. To speed up an evaluation of the sustainability status of non-prioritized fisheries we have initiated a program whereby industry can directly contract SFP-approved analysts to develop a FishSource profile on a fishery. More information on this External Contributor Program is available at http://www.sustainablefish.org/fisheries-information.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 2 January 2014

The age-structured assessment model for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Pacific cod is regularly reviewed by experts (Oliveira 2011). Results and methods are publicly available. Regular surveys and extensive research increase the robustness of assessments. The 2012 assessment (Thompson and Lauth 2012) incorporated results from 14 models designed to address issues raised by scientists, industry and others— some with age-composition data, some without. From this basket of options, the authors recommended primary reliance on model 1.

Components of the Alaska Fishery Science Center’s (AFSC’s) groundfish surveys, which provide much of the data for stock assessments, are sometimes hampered due to funding shortages (AFSC 2013). The North Pacific Fishery Management Council has consistantly identified annual and biennial surveys, conducted by both state and federal entities, as a highest priority in light of ongoing federal budget cuts (NPFMC 2010-2013). In a recent analysis, the AFSC (AFSC 2013) determined that further reductions in survey effort will hinder the ability to adequately manage groundfish stocks, with potential losses to protection of stocks and ecosystems and reductions in fishery revenue.

The 2012 assessment results projected total biomass for 2013 at 1,720,000 t (Thompson 2013), slightly above the estimated biomass for 2012 (1,690,000). Female spawning biomass for 2013 is projected slightly lower by the 2012 assessment than as predicted by the prior assessment, at 422,000 t instead of 437,000 t.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 15 December 2013

Scientists’ advised fishing mortality level (‘F’ pertaining to the maximum acceptable biological catch, or ‘ABC’) for 2013 (F=0.29) complies with the harvest policy for the current biomass level (Thompson and Lauth 2012). This yields an advised maximum catch limit (the ABC) of 307,000 t for 2013. This is 2% below the 2012 ABC but well above the average of annual ABC’s over the prior decade (199,420 t between 2001 and 2011). The uptick in ABC levels over recent years is driven by the contribution of several strong year classes (2006, 2008, 2010 and likely 2011) to the spawning stock biomass, and a similar trend is expected to continue.

The fishery is regularly audited by outside experts to maintain its Marine Stewardship Council certification and assess precaution in setting harvest limits. The harvest policy includes multiple measures to reduce potential for overfishing. The harvest policy requires a decrease in F when biomass declines below target level.

United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 18 March 2011

Scientists’ advised fishing mortality level (‘F’ pertaining to the maximum acceptable biological catch, or ‘ABC’) for 2013 (F=0.29) complies with the harvest policy for the current biomass level (Thompson and Lauth 2012). This yields an advised maximum catch limit (the ABC) of 307,000 t for 2013. This is 2% below the 2012 ABC but well above the average of annual ABC’s over the prior decade (199,420 t between 2001 and 2011). The uptick in ABC levels over recent years is driven by the contribution of several strong year classes (2006, 2008, 2010 and likely 2011) to the spawning stock biomass, and a similar trend is expected to continue.

The harvest policy includes multiple measures to reduce potential for overfishing. The harvest policy requires a decrease in F when biomass declines below target level.

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 16 December 2013

Reference points for biomass and fishing mortality are reported in the 2012 SAFE report (Thompson and Lauth 2012) as follows, based on Model 1 estimates:

For the BSAI region as a whole:

B100% = 896,000 t

B40% = 358,000 t

B35% = 314,000 t

Female spawning biomass = 422,000

FABC = 0.29. This is the maximum fishing mortality rate advised by scientists.

FOFL = 0.34. This is the fishing mortality rate that would constitute overfishing.

MaxABC = 307,000 t. This is the maximum advised Acceptable Biological Catch.

Biomass target reference point (Btrp) = B40%, (358,000 t in 2013). As a Tier 3a stock under the North Pacific Fishery Management Council’s harvest policy, BSAI Pacific cod is managed to a biomass target of B40%.

Blim = B20%.

For the Eastern Bering Sea alone, the 2012 assessment estimates B100% to be 833,000 t, B40% to be 333,000 t, and B35% to be 292,000 t.

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 16 December 2013

At 422,000 t, spawning biomass for BSAI cod is above its target level and expected to increase, given the contribution of fish from several strong year classes that will continue to reach reproductive age over the next several years (Thompson and Lauth 2012).

To ensure that they avoid the B20% lower limit, managers and their scientific advisors have asked the assessment authors to estimate the odds that the stock could fall below that limit three to five years in the future. Models from the 2012 stock assessment place the odds of spawning biomass falling below this limit at virtually zero over the next several years.

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 2 January 2014

Following recommendations made by the NPFMC in December 2012, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) set the season’s TAC for BSAI Pacific cod at 260,000 t (NOAA 2013a), well below the 2012 stock assessments’ 2013 ABC of 307,000 t (Thompson and Lauth 2012). The TAC is consistantly set below limits advised by scientists, averaging 83% of the ABC between 1980 and 2012. Since 2006, the annual TAC has been reduced to accommodate a guideline harvest limit (GHL) of 3% established for state managed fisheries inside state of Alaska waters.

Groundfish stocks are broadly covered under federal management authority; however the state of Alaska manages Pacific cod fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and the BSAI under two scenarios. During the federally managed fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the state of Alaska concurrently administers management of Pacific cod fisheries within state waters (EEZ) (Woodby et al. 2005). These “parallel fisheries” are subjected to most of the same management actions and guidelines as the federal fishery, and harvests in both the federally prosecuted and parallel state fisheries apply toward the total allowable catch (TAC) set by the NPMFC. Vessels participating in the parallel fishery must be state-registered, but are not required to hold federal fishing permits; as such, these vessels are not subject to federal requirements pertaining to logbooks and observer coverage (Stichert 2012). Independently managed state fisheries were established in the sate waters of the GOA in 1997 (Woodby et al. 2005) and the BSAI in 2006 (Fitch 2011). Introduction of these additional fisheries brought changes in jurisdiction authority, catcher participation and distribution of the total catch allocation for the GOA and on a smaller scale for the BSAI. Management plans for state fisheries are developed through the Alaska Board of Fisheries (BOF) process, and Guideline Harvest Limits (GHL’s) are set based on a percentage of the federal ABC established by the NMFS (Woodby et al. 2005). State-run fisheries generally begin following the closure of the federal and parallel fisheries. Since the onset of the state-run fishery, the total combined target catch (federal TAC plus state GHL) has never been exceeded (Thompson and Lauth 2012).

 
United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 4 August 2010

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) performs management functions with recommendations from the NPFMC. The fishery is quota regulated, with allocations made by gear types. Area and time restrictions are set annually (SCS, 2006). A harvest control rule reduces fishing mortality at a spawning biomass below B40% (AFSC, 2009).  Catch limits are consistently set within limits advised by scientists.

 

The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC, or Council) set a TAC of 176,540 t for 2009, slightly below the acceptable biological catch (ABC, which is effectively an upper limit) recommended by scientists on its Scientific and Statistical Committee. The committee recommended an ABC of 182,000 t for 2009, a slight increase from the two previous years.

The 2008 catch resulted in fishing mortality at about 80% of Fmsy level.

Over the last 29 years, TAC equaled ABC in 10 years (34%).

The following information pertains to the 2008 fishery and to management of the fishery in general:

The MSC gave the fishery a perfect score of 100 with respect to exploitation strategy, because “there is a high probability of the stock being below the target exploitation rate (F35%) and very high probability of it being below the limit reference point (F40%)”.

The North Pacific fishery Management Council recommended a 2008 TAC of 170,720 mt for BSAI cod taken within federal waters (3-200 miles offshore). The TAC was set 3% below the 176,000 t recommended in final scientific advice in order to account for expected catches within Alaska’s state-managed three mile zone.

The Total Allowable Catch (TAC) consistently has been set at or below the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC), which represents scientists’ recommended upper limit on removals. During 1980-2007, “TAC averaged about 79% of ABC,” assessment authors observe. The MSC gave the fishery a high score of 90 for management that adheres to scientific advice, because “the Council … does not set the ABC above that recommended by its scientific advisors”.

The NPFMC and its Scientific and Statistical Committee frequently request additional research when uncertainties surface suspected inadequacies are found in existing data, practices, or models. Quota setting decisions for groundfish species including cod are governed by policies that increase precaution in proportion to uncertainty and risk —both in the health of fish stocks themselves and in the scientific stock assessments that are used to guide management. Among other measures, the council’s amendment 56 sets mathematical guidelines that effectively ratchet down exploitation strategies when uncertainty and risk increase. In addition, the council’s Optimum Yield policy caps total removals of all groundfish from the U.S. Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands at 2 million t annually. This policy generally reduces allowed groundfish harvests to levels well below the limits recommended by scientists. A review of the OY policy (Meuter, 2005) found that the cap keeps overall groundfish catches at about half the level that might be permitted under a regime of simplistic MSY catch limits.

Under the council’s harvest control rule for this stock, harvest rates are constrained at all times well below F35%. While managers of many similar fisheries around the world use this rate as a target, in BSAI cod it is designated as an “overfishing level” of fishing mortality. When the stock is above B40%, harvest rates at the maximum Acceptable Biological Catch are capped so that removals should always be significantly smaller than F35% level removals. When biomass drops below B40%, the Maximum ABC harvest rate is reduced proportionately. Should the resource drop below B20%, directed fishing for cod would cease.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 2 January 2014

Not applicable. The stock is neither overfished (depleted) nor subject to overfishing, according to stock assessment (Thompson and Lauth 2012).

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 16 December 2013

Pacific cod catches in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands have been well controlled, keeping catch consistently within the TAC. Between 1980 and 2005, catches exceeded the TAC in only 5 years, by a margin of 5% or less in all but one year (1992). Since the onset of the state-run fishery, the total combined target catch (federal TAC plus state GHL) has never been exceeded. The time series of ABC, TAC and catch for BSAI Pacific cod since 1980 is documented in Table 2.3 of the 2012 SAFE report (Thompson and Lauth 2012).

United States
Bottom-set longlines

Last updated on 4 August 2010

Cod catches in the Bering Sea and Aleutians have been well controlled, keeping catch within the TAC in most years. Table 2.4 of the 2009 SAFE for BSAI cod (AFSC, 2009) shows a time series of ABC, TAC and catch since 1980.

Fishery observer coverage is high, monitoring reporting of catch and bycatch. Extensive logbook reporting is required and is submitted on 100% of longline effort (SCS, 2006).

 

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 3 January 2014

Management measures are in place to limit impacts on protected species, including Stellar sea lions and some seabirds. These efforts undergo periodic review to ensure they work as intended.

Impacts on Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed Steller sea lions are a concern in both the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Bering and Sea Aleutian Islands (BSAI) groundfish fishery management areas. Two distinct population segments (DPS’s), the eastern U.S. and western U.S. segments, are distributed on either side of a boundary extending southeast from Cape Suckling, Alaska (NMFS 2013c). Both populations were listed under the ESA in 1990 (NMFS 2013d); however, the eastern population was delisted in 2013 (NOAA 2013a). The western population retains its listed status.

While the risk of encounters with marine mammals in the GOA and BSAI fisheries is considered remote (NOAA 2011), there is potential for these fisheries to reduce availability of prey items important to Steller sea lion survival (Thompson and Lauth 2012). Studies indicate that Pacific cod in these areas are a key prey species for Steller sea lions, particularly in winter (Calkins 1998; Sinclair and Zeppelin 2002). The fishery operates to a degree in Steller sea lion foraging areas, and overlap in size range of Pacific cod exploited by commercial fisheries and consumed by Steller sea lions has been documented (Livingston 2002; NMFS 2010). As a protective measure, the National Marine Fisheries Service disperses fishing over time and area to avoid impacting key foraging times and locations (haulouts and rookeries) (NMFS 2012); there are similar measures in place for state managed fisheries (NMFS 2010). For federal and parallel state fisheries managed for Total Allowable Catch (TAC), directed fishing on Steller sea lion prey species is prohibited if biomass is projected to decline below B20% (20% of equilibrium spawning biomass) (NPFMC 2013b).

In 2010, NMFS reviewed fishery management actions in the GOA and BSAI to re-assess their impacts on ESA listed species. The result was a draft revised biological opinion concluding that fishing activities operating under the existing fishery management plan were likely to adversely modify the critical habitat of the western DPS of Steller sea lions and jeopardize its existence (NMFS 2010). Based on the analysis, revised protection measures were recommended in three BSAI federal fishing areas selected based on severity of declines in sea lion abundance, importance of habitat and magnitude of fishery impact. No additional protection measures were recommended for the GOA fisheries. Several alternatives to these recommendations, including a preferred alternative with more reduced BSAI fishery closures were outlined in a 2013 draft environmental impact statement (NMFS 2013b). A finalized EIS is expected in 2014.

Seabirds are incidentally impacted by all gear types, and the fishery has the potential to interact with the endangered short-tailed albatross(Phoebastria albatrus) and the threatened Steller’s eider (Polysticta stelleri) (Mohn et al. 2010]. Limits have been determined for the short-tailed albatross: the current ESA Biological Opinion allows for four over a two-year period. Between 2003 and 2012, captures of short-tailed albatross were only recorded in 2010 (2 mortalities) and 2011 (one mortality). No captures of Steller’s eiders were recorded (Zador 2013). Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), are captured much more frequently; and while not endangered, they are listed as a Bird of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (Zador 2013). This designation implies that this species is likely to become listed under the Endangered Species Act if further protective measures are not implimented. Other PET species potentially caught include Red-legged Kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris), Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmorata), and Kittlitz’s Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris), although very low numbers or none of these have been reported caught. To mitigate the fishery’s seabird interactions, regulations require longline vessels longer than 60 feet to fly streamer lines of a specific design above their gear, which discourages birds from diving on the baited hooks during setting.

Closed areas are enforced around seabird breeding grounds and longline vessels have introduced devices, especially streamer lines, which have significantly reduced seabird bycatch (Mohn et al., 2010; Zador 2013). These devices are required of longline vessels longer than 60 feet, and serve to discourage birds form diving on the baited hooks during setting.  Marine Stewardship Council certification conditions requiring that 1) the interaction of the trawl fishery with seabirds be further explored, 2) that seabird bycatch by the longline sector be determined to the species level, and 3) that impacts of the longline fishery on skate species be determined, were resolved as of the 2012 Gulf of Alaska pacific cod surveillance audit (Rice et al. 2012).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 2 January 2014

Discards of target and non-target species are monitored by observers and reported publicly. Stock assessment reports tabulate this data (see Tables 2.2 and 2.36 – 2.40 in Thompson and Lauth, 2012, for most recent numbers as of December 2013). Thompson et al. (2009) reports noted that the impact of bycatch of non-target species (or "incidental catch) on the ecosystem is not well understood, but that only eight species or species groups accounted for an average of more than 1,000 t of discards on average between 2005-2009. Ecology of bycaught species, including “estimation of biomass, carrying capacity, and resilience”, has consistently been identified as a data gap in stock assessment reports (Thompson et al. 2009 and 2010; Thompson and Lauth 2011 and 2012; Thompson 2013; Thompson and Palsson 2013).

Bycatch in the longline fishery is dominated by a small number of species. Skates represent the vast bulk of fish bycatch. The estimated take for 2010 in the Alaskan federal groundfish fisheries (Preliminary Seabird bycatch Estimates for Alaskan Groundfish Fisheries, 2007-2010.) was 4,596 total birds. Of these 2,357 or 51% were Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), 1,141 or 25% were unidentified gulls, and 647 or 14% were unidentified shearwaters.

Seabird catches have declined recently, with half as many birds caught in 2010 as in 2007, due to the introduction in 2002 of paired bird-scaring streamer lines.

HABITAT

Last updated on 2 January 2014

Gears used in this fishery include “bottom contact” types, i.e.: nonpelagic trawl, pot, and hook-and-line gear. Bottom trawls, and to a lesser extent pots and longlines, may disrupt seabed habitat. Managers have responded to this risk and other concerns by closing large areas of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) to bottom contact gear (see below under Marine Reserves). Since the early 1990’s an overall decreasing trend has been observed with respect to the amount of potential area disturbed by bottom trawling (Zador 2013). The 2012 ecosystem assessment for the BSAI reported that in 2011, the maximum potential area of seafloor habitat disturbed by bottom trawling decreased dramatically in portions of the Aleutians Islands region (Zador 2012). In the same year, estimates for the Bering Sea region were the largest since 1998; however a slight decrease was estimated for 2012 (Zador 2013).

The productivity of the Bering Sea environment is highly influenced by sea temperature. In 2012, the eastern Bering Sea returned to a more favorable pattern of cooler temperatures similar to those observed between 2007 and 2010 (Zador 2013). Biomass of upper trophic level species in recent years has been increasing and remains above the long-term average. Strong year-classes of Pacific cod as well as pollock since 2006 have contributed to this effect. A peak in zooplankton biomass was indicated in 2009; however overall abundance appears to have been decreasing since that time. Increased abundance of pelagic forage fish and jellyfish may be associated with this trend (Zador 2012 and 2013).

Increasing ocean acidification holds uncertain implications for this fishery, but Arctic and sub-Arctic seas are experiencing rapid change and some may be close to “tipping points” in ocean chemistry. “High latitude seas are a bellwether for prospective impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms at mid and low latitudes,” write Fabry et al (2009) in an article summarizing recent research on this matter. Rising emissions of carbon dioxide, primarily from smokestacks and tailpipes, are driving this change in ocean chemistry as the gas mixes into seawater.

Fishery effects on the ecosystem are explicitly considered in the stock assessment and management advice. Main concerns identified by assessors during the most recent Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification process (Mohn et al. 2010) included the potential for removal of prey needed by other species (e.g. Steller sea lions), gear impacts on habitat, bycatch mortality, and “ghost fishing” by lost gear. However, management action in response to these concerns has been sufficient to the extent that there are no outstanding MSC certification conditions associated with the fishery (Rice et al. 2013).

The Pribilof Islands Habitat Conservation Area and Bristol Bay nearshore waters are closed to all trawling, including pelagic gear. A map of these and other closed areas may be found at the following NOAA website: Bering Sea Habitat Conservation. See figure ES 1.

Major ecological changes are occurring in the Bering Sea, in part due to climate change. The stock assessment takes account of pollock’s temperature-bound habitat preferences.

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 3 January 2014

Many areas in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) are closed to bottom trawls as well as other gears as a means of mitigating impacts to habitat, endangered species and unintended bycatch (Zador 2013). Closures intended to protect benthic habitat tend to be year-round, whereas those intended to minimize bycatch or impacts to seabirds and marine mammals are designed to be either year-round, seasonal or dependent on triggers related to catch statistics. New closures have been added over time and as recently as 2011. Some of these, such as those contained within the Arctic Fisheries Management plan and the Northern Bering Sea Research Area guidelines are designed to be in place until sufficient new information exists to allow sustainable fisheries management (NPFMC 2013c).

In sum, there are presently approximately 736,000 nm2 in the BSAI that are potentially subject to bottom trawling closures (Zador 2013). These include 497,000 nm2 that are closed year round either to bottom trawling alone or in combination with additional fishing activities. The remaining roughly 239,000 nm2 are closed either seasonally or as necessary based on triggers. Bottom trawling is also prohibited in most state waters (0-3 mmi from shore).

Early measures to protect Steller seal lions began in 1991 with restrictions on fishing within waters near rookeries and haul outs. More specific closures intended to prevent depletion of prey supplies for Steller sea lions were implemented in 2000, and by 2001 over 90,000 nm2 of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were closed to trawling year-round. Additional mitigation for sea lions occurred in 2011, when substantial parts of the Aleutian Islands were closed to trawling for Atka mackerel and Pacific cod (the predominant target species in those areas) as well as longlining for Pacific cod.

The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) established the Aleutian Habitat Conservation Area in 2006, prohibiting bottom trawling fishing methods in an area of 279,114 square miles. This measure was intended to protect vulnerable corals, sponges, and other benthic species (NPFMC 2013c). Smaller additional “habitat areas of particular concern” (HAPCs) were closed to a variety of bottom contact gear in order to protect areas of high density coral aggregations.

In 2008, the NPFMC implemented new measures in the form of year-round closures to bottom trawling in several areas of the Bering Sea. This precautionary freeze on bottom trawling was intended to preserve benthic fish habitat while research plans were developed. At this time, the NPFMC also established the Northern Bering Sea Research Area including the shelf waters to the north of St. Matthew Island (85,000 nm2).

A new fishery management plan for the Arctic implemented in 2009 established additional closures to all commercial fishing in an area totaling nearly 150,000 nm2 (Zador 2013). Some eastern Bering Sea waters are encompassed in the area. This measure is intended to freeze commercial fishing while the effects on commercial fisheries from warming ocean temperatures, migrating fish stocks and shifting sea ice conditions from a changing climate are investigated (NPFMC 2013c).

A synopsis of the above protections and others throughout Alaska can be found at the NPFMC’s “habitat protections” page.

In addition, to the already protected areas in the BSAI, recent concern has been addressed toward canyon habitat along the Bering Sea continental shelf, collectively known as the Bering Sea Canyons (NMFS 2013a). At the NPFMC’s June 2013 meeting, Greenpeace and other environmental groups asked the NPFMC to protect two of these canyons, the Zhemchung and Pribilof canyons (AJC 2013). In response to testimony at this meeting as well as information from a scientific review by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scientists (Sigler et al. 2013, draft ), the council passed a motion to proactively pursue further research on the Bering Sea canyons (NMFS 2013a). The motion contained steps to “identify and validate where necessary areas of coral concentrations for possible management measures for the conservation and management of deep sea corals in Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons”. NOAA’s Alaska Fisheries Science Center has posted an overview of their research plans for the canyons (Rooper et al. 2013), which is available here.

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Harvest specifications since 2013 have been derived from non-age-structured, “Tier 5” models, which do not allow estimation of spawning biomass or associated limit reference points, though age-structured models have been among the models explored in stock assessments. Survey biomass estimates allow cautious assessment of trends in relative abundance and projections under various harvest scenarios. There is evidence that harvest control rules, as historically implemented for the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands area stocks, have been sufficiently precautionary to maintain stocks above limit reference points (Bowen et al. 2015).

As calculated for 2016 data.

This measures the Set TAC as a percentage of the ABC.

The Set TAC is 12.8 ('000 t). The ABC is 17.6 ('000 t) .

The underlying Set TAC/ABC for this index is 72.9%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 9.06 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 9.42 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 96.1%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 8.

Harvest specifications provided since 2013 have been derived from non-age-structured, “Tier 5”, models; which do not allow estimation of spawning biomass or associated limit reference points. However, based onsurvey biomass estimates from the model selected in the 2015 stock assessment, estimated biomass in 2015 was approximately 75% of the time series average (Thompson and Palsson 2015). Further, results from four different age-structured models also explored (but not accepted due to various limitations) estimated 2015 female spawning biomass at 40-58% of estimated unfished levels.

As calculated for 2014 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

An estimate of current fishing mortality has not been estimable from the stock assessment models used to set harvest specifications since 2013. However, trends in survey biomass and recruitment patterns suggest that the stock is not depressed or at levels that would impair recruitment (Bowen et al. 2015). While age-structured stock assessment models were not considered adequately robust for purposes of setting harvest specifications, results from these models were considered as indicators of the stock’s status relative to overfishing reference points (Thompson and Palsson 2015). Based on spawning biomass and biological reference points from these models, the stock is not considered overfished or approaching an overfished condition.

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low

This indicates the potential risk of human rights abuses for all fisheries operating within this stock or assessment unit. If there are more than on risk level noted, individual fisheries have different levels. Click on the "Select Scores" drop-down list for your fisheries of interest.

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DATA NOTES

Unless otherwise noted below, data are taken from Thompson and Palsson 2015. 

 Notes: 1) Advised TAC (ABC), set TAC and catch series are for all gears. 2) Biomass is total (age 0+) survey biomass, as estimated by the model selected for harvest specification (Tier 5 model, non-age-structured (Thompson and Palsson 2015)). Spawning stock biomass (SSB) was not estimated by the stock assessment model used to set harvest specifications; estimates of SSB from other models explored are not reported here, but can be viewed in the 2015 SAFE report (Thompson and Palsson 2015). 3) Harvest specifications are derived from assessment authors’ recommended model (model 13.4, the "base model", renamed Model "0" for the 2015 assessment) (Thompson and Palsson 2015). 4) For scores calculation purposes, catches in the scores datasheet refer only to federal catches. 5) Harvest specifications (ABCs and TACs) and catches through the year 2013 are for the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands combined. 6) Catch statistic for 2015 reflects catches through September 27, 2015. 7) Harvest specifications (ABC and TAC) for 2015 are taken from Federal Register document 81 FR 14773.

  

 

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Alaska (Pacific) cod - freezer longline

STATUS

Withdrawn on 31 December 2005

SCORES

Catch from this certificate is now covered by the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Pacific cod fishery.

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits
  1. AFSC (Alaska Fisheries Science Center). 2008a. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council) Gulf of Alaska SAFE. Appendix A. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for The Groundfish Resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Regions. Compiled by The Plan Team for the Groundfish Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska. December 2008.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2008/BSAIintro.pdf

  2. AFSC (Alaska Fisheries Science Center), 2009. Appendix A. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation (SAFE) Report for The Groundfish Resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Regions. Compiled by The Plan Team for the Groundfish Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska, November 2009.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/stocks/assessments.htm

  3. AFSC (Alaska Fisheries Science Center), 2013. AFSC groundfish and crab surveys and their role in fisheries management. [pdf] NOAA Fisheries Science Program Reviews: Stock Assessment Data, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/program_reviews/2013/background_materials/Surveys%20Role%20in%20Fisheries%20Management.pdf

  4. AJC (Alaska Journal of Commerce), 2013. Bering Sea canyons research approved with wide support. [online] Alaska Journal of Commerce, June issue-3, 2013. http://www.alaskajournal.com/Alaska-Journal-of-Commerce/June-Issue-3-2013/Bering-Sea-canyons-research-approved-with-wide-support/

  5. Aydin, K., et al, A Comparison of the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Aleutian Islands Large Marine Ecosystems Through Food Web Modelinghttp://www.afsc.noaa.gov/techmemos/nmfs-afsc-178.htm

  6. Bowen, d., J. Rice, and R. J. Trumble, 2015. MSC Public Certification Report for Alaska Pacific Cod Fishery – Bering Sea‐Aleutian Island. MRAG Americas, Inc, June 2015. 212pphttps://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-pacific-cod/reassessment-downloads-folder/20150618_PCR_COD014.pdf

  7. Calkins, D. G., 1998. Prey of Steller sea lions in the Bering Sea. Biosphere Conservation 1:33-44.http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110001817291/en

  8. Fabry, J.B. McClintock, V.J., Mathis, J.T., and Grebmeier, J.M., 2009. Ocean Acidification at High Latitudes: The Bellwether. Oceanography, Vol 2, No. 4, December 2009.Fabry_et_al.__2009.pdf

  9. Federal Register, 2016. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2016 and 2017 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish.  A Rule by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Commerce on March 18, 2016. Federal Register document 81 FR 14773.  https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/03/18/2016-06182/fisheries-of-the-exclusive-economic-zone-off-alaska-bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-2016-and-2017#h

  10. Fitch, H., 2011. Annual management report for the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands Area state-waters groundfish fisheries and groundfish harvest from parallel seasons in 2009. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Management Report No. 11-28, Anchoragehttp://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidpdfs/FMR11-28.pd

  11. Grant, W.S., Zhang, C.I., Kobayashi, T. Stahl, G., 1987. Lack of genetic stock discretion in Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 44(3): 490-498. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/f87-061?journalCode=cjfas#.ViAlWrzFIhY

  12. Gustafson R.G., W.H. Lenarz, B.B. McCain, C.C. Schmitt, W.S. Grant, T.L. Builder, and R.D. Methot. 2000. Status review of Pacific Hake, Pacific Cod, and Walleye Pollock from Puget Sound, Washington. U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC- 44, 275 p. http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/scipubs/techmemos/tm44/pacificcod.htm

  13. Hiatt, T., Dalton, M., Felthoven, R., Fissel, B., Garber-Yonts, B., Haynie, A., Kasperski, S., Lew, D., Package, C., Sepez, J. and Seung, C., 2010. Economic Status of the Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska, 2009. In: North Pacific Fisheries Management Council (ed.) Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the Groundfish fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands area. 254 pp..http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2010/economic.pdf

  14. Livingston, P. (Ed) 2002. Ecosystem considerations for 2003. North Pacific Fishery Management Council Groundfish Plan Team Document, November 2002. Dept. of Commerce, NMFS, NOAA, AFSC, 7600 Sand Point Way N.E. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CC4QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.afsc.noaa.gov%2Frefm%2Fdocs%2F2002%2Fecochap.pdf&ei=PUHPUbKmNMeRiALW2IEg&usg=AFQjCNG8LitZF9g8wjdTVJe1W054t_ydlw&bvm=bv.48572450,d.cGE

  15. Livingston, P, et al, Draft Report of the Scientific and Statistical Committee to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, December 3-7, 2007, NPFMC 2007http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/minutes/minutes.htm

  16. Mohn, B., Bowen, D., Hanna, S. and Knapman, P., 2010. Public Certification Report for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands pacific cod trawl fishery. Intertek Moody Marine, Derby, UK, January 2010. 187 pp. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-pacific-cod/assessment-downloads-1/25.01.2010-bsai-p-cod-trawl-pcr

  17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2011. Federal Register Vol.76, No. 40, Tuesday, March 1, 2011. Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish. Final Rule; closures. 23 pp.http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-01/pdf/2011-4538.pdf

  18. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2010. Endangered Species Act – Section 7 Consultation Draft Biological Opinion.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/protectedresources/stellers/esa/biop/draft/draft0810.pdf

  19. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2012. Protection Measures in the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries: Tables of SSL Protection Areas. [pdf]. http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/protectedresources/stellers/esa/biop/draft/draft0810.pdf

  20. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2013a. Bearing Sea Canyons—Home to Important Fish Habitat. [online].http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/stories/2013/06/6_11_13b_sea_canyons.html

  21. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2013b. Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis. [pdf].http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/sustainablefisheries/sslpm/eis/draft/execsummary.pdf

  22. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2013c. Generalized range of the Steller sea lion. [online]. http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/images/prmd/stellers/range_lrg.jpg

  23. NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service), 2013d. NOAA Fisheries - Office of Protected Resources: Steller Sea Lion. [online].http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/mammals/pinnipeds/stellersealion.html

  24. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ) 2011. Final 2011 list of fisheries. [online].http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/interactions/lof/final2011.htm#table2_cat3

  25. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ) 2013a. Federal Register/ Vol. 78, No. 213/ Monday, November 4, 2013/ Rules and Regulations. Endangered and Threatened Species; Delisting of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of Steller Sea Lion Under the Endangered Species Act; Amendment to Special Protection Measures for Endangered Marine Mammals; Final Rule. [pdf].http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/78fr66140.pdf

  26. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ) 2013b. Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 41 / Friday, March 1, 2013/ Rules and Regulations. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish. [pdf].http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/frules/78fr13813.pdf

  27. NPFMC-North Pacific Fishery Management Council.undated. Essential Fish Habitat.http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/current_issues/efh/efh.htm

  28. NPFMC-North Pacific Fishery Management Council. 2007. Bering Sea Habitat Conservation.http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/current_issues/BSHC/BSHC407alts.pdf

  29. NPFMC (North Pacfic Fishery Management Council), 2011. Council’s Five-Year Research Priorities: 2011-2015. [pdf]. http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/resources/Research_priorities11.pdf

  30. NPFMC (North Pacfic Fishery Management Council), 2012. Council’s Five-Year Research Priorities: 2012-2016 (as approved in June 2012). [pdf].http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/MISC/ResearchPriorities712.pdf

  31. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council), 2009. 2010/11 BSAI Groundfish Specifications. [online]. NPFMC News and Notes, December 2009. http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/newsletters/newsletters.html

  32. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council), 2010. North Pacific Fishery Management Council Five-Year Research Priorities, 2011-2015 Adopted October 2010. [pdf]http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/conservation_issues/Research_priorities10.pdf

  33. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council), 2013a. Council’s Five-Year Research Priorities: 2013 through 2017 (as adopted in June 2013). [pdf].http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/PDFdocuments/MISC/ResearchPriorities2013.pdf

  34. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council), 2013b. Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. [pdf].http://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/fmp/BSAI/BSAIfmp613.pdf

  35. NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council), 2013c. NMFS: Habitat Protections, Aleutian Islands. [online.]http://www.npfmc.org/habitat-protections/

  36. Oliveira, J.A., 2012. CIE Review of BSAI and GOA Pacific Cod Stock Assessment Models. [PDF] Center for Independant Experts, Individual CIE Report, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle.http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc/pdfdocuments/catch_shares/pcod/pcodmodelsrev411oliveria.pdf

  37. Rice, j., Bowen, D., Hanna, S., Knapman, P., 2011. First Annual Surveillance Report BSAI Pacific Cod Fishery – Longline, Trawl, Pot and Jig. Moody Marine Ltd. 25 pp.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-pacific-cod/assessment-downloads-1/82025_BSAI_P_cod_Surveillance_Report_1.pdf

  38. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S. and Blyth-Skyrme, R., 2012. Second Annual Surveillance Report Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Pacific Cod Fishery: Jig, Longline, Pot and Trawl. Intertek Moody Marine, Derby, UK, June 2012.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-pacific-cod/assessment-downloads-1/20120710_SR.pdf

  39. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Hanna, S. and Blyth-Skyrme, R., 2013. Third Annual Surveillance Report Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands Pacific Cod Fishery: Jig, Longline, Pot and Trawl. Intertek Moody Marine, Derby, UK, July 2013. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-pacific-cod/assessment-downloads-1/20130716_SR_COD12.pdf

  40. Rooper, C., Sigler, M., Hoff, G., Stone, B. and Zimmermann, M., 2013. Research to Determine the Distributions of Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges Throughout Alaska. NOAA - Alaska Fisheries Science Center Quarterly Report: October, November, December, 2013. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/Quarterly/OND2013/OND13-Feature-1.pdf

  41. Rice, J., Bowen, D., Trumble, R.J., 2014. Fourth Annual Surveillance Report - Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Alaska Pacific Cod Fishery. MRAG Americas, Inc, July 2014. 12pphttp://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/pacific/bering-sea-and-aleutian-islands-pacific-cod/assessment-downloads-1/20140730_SR_COD14.pdf

  42. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2006. The Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Freezer/Longline Pacific Cod Fishery MSC Final Assessment Report.http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bsai-alaska-pacific-cod-freezer-longline/assessment-downloads-1/Final_PCod_Rep_Jan06.pdf

  43. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 2009. MSC Pacific Cod Freezer Longline Fishery, Alaska, USA (Surveillance Report no. 3).http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified/pacific/bsai-alaska-pacific-cod-freezer-longline/assessment-downloads-1/07.07.2009-BSAI-Cod-Annual-Surv.pdf

  44. Sigler, M.F., Rooper, C.N., Hoff, G.R., Stone, R.P., McConnaughey, R.A., and Wilderuer, T.K., 2013 (draft). Are Bering Sea canyons unique habitats within the eastern Bering Sea? [pdf] Draft for review by North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 2013.Unique-Habitat_BeringSeaCanyons_a_513.pdf

  45. Sinclair, E.S. and Zeppelin, T. K., 2002. Seasonal and spatial differences in diet in the western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of Mammalogy 83(4). [online]. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1383503?uid=3739512&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21102137463593

  46. Thompson G.G., J.M. Ianelli and R.R. Lauth, 2010. Chapter 2: Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area. Alaska Fisheries Science Center, 182p.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2010/BSAIpcod.pdf

  47. Thompson, G., 2013. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2014. December 2013. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2013/EBSpcod.pdf

  48. Thompson, G., 2013. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2014. December 2013. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2013/EBSpcod.pdf

  49. Thompson, G., 2014. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2014. December 2014.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2014/EBSpcod.pdf

  50. Thompson, G., et al, Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area, NMFS 2007.BSAIpcod.pdf

  51. Thompson, G. and Lauth, R.R., 2011. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2012. December 2011. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2011/BSAIpcod.pdf

  52. Thompson G and Lauth, R. R., 2012. Assessment of the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) stock in the Bering Sea and Aleutians Islands Area. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2013. December 2012. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2012/BSAIpcod.pdf

  53. Thompson, G. and Palsson, W.A., 2013. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Aleutian Islands. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2014. December 2013. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2013/aipcod.pdf

  54. Thompson, G. and Palsson, W.A., 2015. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Aleutian Islands. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2016. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2015/aipcod.pdf

  55. Thompson, G.G, Ianelli, J.N., and Lauth, R.R., 2009. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2010. December 2009.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/stocks/assessments.htm

  56. Thompson, G. J. Ianelli, R. Lauth, S.Gaichas, and K. Aydin. 2007. Chapter 2: Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area. National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2008. December 2007.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/docs/2007/BSAIpcod.pdf

  57. Thompson, G. J. Ianelli, R. Lauth, S.Gaichas, and K. Aydin. 2008. Chapter 2: Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area. National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2009. December 2008.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2008/BSAIpcod.pdf

  58. Thompson, G., Ianelli, J.N. and Lauth, R.R., 2010. Assessment of the Pacific Cod Stock in the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area. [pdf] National Marine Fisheries Services – Alaska Fisheries Science Center. SAFE (Stock Assesment and Fisheries Evaluation) Reports for 2011. December 2010.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/docs/2010/BSAIpcod.pdf

  59. Woodby, D., Carlile, D., Siddeek, S., Funk, F., Clark, J.H., and Hulbert, L., 2005. Commercial Fisheries of Alaska. [pdf] Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 05-09, Anchorage.http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/sp05-09.pdf

  60. Zador, S., (Ed) 2012. Ecosystem considerations 2012. National Marine Fisheries Service, Resource Ecology and Fisheries Management Division, Alaska Fisheries Science Center.http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2012/ecosystem.pdf

  61. Zador, S., (Ed) 2013. Ecosystem considerations 2013. National Marine Fisheries Service, Resource Ecology and Fisheries Management Division, Alaska Fisheries Science Center. http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/REFM/Docs/2013/ecosystem.pdf

  62. Acknowledgements

    SFP is grateful to David Wiedenfeld of the American Bird Conservancy for contributing to this profile’s content.

References

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