Summary

IDENTIFICATION

Last updated on 17 May 2016

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Gadus morhua

SPECIES NAME(S)

Atlantic cod

COMMON NAMES

3P Cod


ANALYSIS

Strengths
  • The fishery is evaluated annually through survey, catch and tagging data.
  • The stock spawning biomass has increased to above Blrp in 2011 and has been stable since.
  • Managers have recently adopted a Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy (CPRS) and is now shaping scientific advice.
  • Stock is under MSC review with a final report due Aug-2015.
Weaknesses

The fishery does not consist of a single stock but of a complex set of sub-components which impairs the estimation of the population size and the effects of TAC levels. Current analytic assessment lacks the ability to produce MSY-type reference points. Limit reference points are not based on stock productivity, but on reference years, which may not reflect current productivity. Target reference points are not in use but are being redefined.

SCORES

Management Quality:

Management Strategy:

≥ 6

Managers Compliance:

≥ 6

Fishers Compliance:

10

Stock Health:

Current
Health:

7.2

Future Health:

≥ 6


FIPS

No related FIPs

CERTIFICATIONS

  • Canada/Newfoundland 3Ps cod:

    Suspended

Fisheries

Within FishSource, the term "fishery" is used to indicate each unique combination of a flag country with a fishing gear, operating within a particular management unit, upon a resource. That resource may have a known biological stock structure and/or may be assessed at another level for practical or jurisdictional reasons. A fishery is the finest scale of resolution captured in FishSource profiles, as it is generally the scale at which sustainability can most fairly and practically be evaluated.

ASSESSMENT UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT FLAG COUNTRY FISHING GEAR
3P Canada 3P Canada Bottom trawls
Gillnets and entangling nets
Hooks and lines
Longlines
Traps

Analysis

OVERVIEW

Last updated on 16 March 2015

Strengths
  • The fishery is evaluated annually through survey, catch and tagging data.
  • The stock spawning biomass has increased to above Blrp in 2011 and has been stable since.
  • Managers have recently adopted a Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy (CPRS) and is now shaping scientific advice.
  • Stock is under MSC review with a final report due Aug-2015.
Weaknesses

The fishery does not consist of a single stock but of a complex set of sub-components which impairs the estimation of the population size and the effects of TAC levels. Current analytic assessment lacks the ability to produce MSY-type reference points. Limit reference points are not based on stock productivity, but on reference years, which may not reflect current productivity. Target reference points are not in use but are being redefined.

1.STOCK STATUS

STOCK ASSESSMENT

Last updated on 15 March 2015

The current assessment utilizes a cohort analysis of of research surveys to derive SSB, total mortality, and other indications of stock status (DFO, 2014 and DFO 2015). Tagging is also used to infer movement and total mortality. A number of uncertainties in this approach exists and include trawl survey catchablity, year effects, mixing and exploitation of a mixed stock, and reductions in tagging outside of the area.

SCIENTIFIC ADVICE

Last updated on 15 March 2015

The Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat publishes stock evaluations resulting from meetings between DFO scientists, fishery managers and other stakeholders (DFO, 2015).In the past scientific advice in the form of projections are used to evaluate various management strategies (DFO, 2014). However a new system and rebuilding goals have recently been adopted. The Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy when applied suggest a small 2% increase in quota, with projections indicating that the stock will be stable or increase over the next few years (DFO, 2015).

REFERENCE POINTS

Last updated on 15 March 2015

A limit reference point has been defined at Brecovery, the lowest SSB from which a sustained recovery was observed. This is presently set at the 1994 SSB (DFO, 2009a). Recently managers have set an upper limit biomass reference point at two times the SSB in 1994 as they explore other options. MSY based reference points are still not possible given the current modeling approach. Rebuilding fishing mortality levels are not available, but a Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy (CPRS)is in place (DFO, 2015).

CURRENT STATUS

Last updated on 15 March 2015

SSB is estimated to have increased since 2008 to 2013 and then leveled off to current values. Current biomass is mid-way between limit and upper stock biomass reference points. There is no target reference point adopted for this stock. Total mortality (ages 5-10) over the last few years have increased above the time series median despite decreasing catches (DFO, 2015).

TRENDS

Last updated on 15 March 2015

SSB showed a decreasing trend between 2004 and 2008 but has since leveled off. Total mortality has increased in recent years despite a reduction in landings and catch. Recruitment is modeled to be very strong in 2011 and 2012 (at historic highs), but there is a high degree of uncertainty around those estimates (DFO, 2015).

 

2.MANAGEMENT QUALITY

MANAGERS' DECISIONS

Last updated on 17 March 2015

The fishery is TAC-managed in accordance with an Integrated Fisheries Management Plan (IFMP) (DFO, 2008a). Following the scientific assessment advisory consultations are conducted, again involving stakeholders in the process, where Conservation Harvesting Plans for each fleet are reviewed and a submission made to the Minister on the TAC. Consultations with the Government of France are then conducted before a TAC is set (DFO, 2009c). Since 1994, an agreement between Canada and France allocates 15.6% of the TAC to France (St. Pierre & Miquelon) (DFO, 2009b). The TAC for 2009/2010 was set at 11,500 tonnes (DFO, 2009b), above the 10,000 tonnes maximum limit recommended (DFO, 2009a). The TAC was set at the same level ever since (DFO, 2011 &2014).

Seasonal closures and the introduction of individual quotas to replace the competitive fishery previously in place have been effective in reducing catches in areas and times where stocks are known to mix (DFO, 2009a). However, an additional series of time/area closures introduced to reduce catches on mixing and spawning fish must be monitored to ensure that higher exploitation rates are not being concentrated on stocks in the increasingly reduced areas that remain open (DFO, 2008a; 2009a). Among enforcement efforts, management of cod bycatch in other fisheries has become an important issue (DFO, 2008a).The Canadian Minister of Fisheries and Oceans has requested that a long-term sustainability plan be developed. This plan has been adopted but is not available online.

RECOVERY PLANS

Last updated on 15 March 2015

In 2012, a draft Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy, including a set of harvest control rules, was developed for the period of 2012-2016, but an evaluation of this plan concluded that in its current form the management objectives “have not been stated in a way that can be measured” (DFO, 2013b). This has since been resolved and the current advice is made using The Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy goals.

However the upper and lower rebuilding goals used are based on qualitative stock level at 1994 and so may not represent overall stock productively like MSY based levels would be.Unfortunately MSY based reference points and rebuilding goals are not possible given the analytic approach.DFO science is working with managers to resolve these issues and to formulate alternative goals (DFO, 2015).

It should be noted that with the stock at 1.6 x the value of the limit SSB reference point that a rebuildingis not currently mandated (DFO, 2015), but managers are exploring the possibly given volubility of the stock and as a precautionary measure.

COMPLIANCE

Last updated on 15 March 2015

Discarding is not presently quantified but high-grading has occurred and could be a consequence of trip limits, size-driven price differences and individual quotas (DFO, 2009, 2011).Quota overruns, unmonitored landings and non-compliance with closures are other issues reported (DFO, 2009c). Overall compliance with TACs and the moratorium has been strong over the years however. The last significant overage occurred in 2006.

A vessel monitoring system monitors larger fishing vessels and a Conservation and Protection programme promotes and monitors compliance (DFO, 2009c). Recreational landings and removals are still considered to be a source of uncertainty in monitoring and assessment (DFO, 2015)

3.ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY

ETP SPECIES

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Marine mammals listed as at risk in the region by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) are: blue whale (endangered), grey whale (extirpated), harbour porpoise (of special concern), north Atlantic right whale (endangered) and Sowery’s beaked whale (of special concern), although the assessments of their status are up to six years old (DFO, 2008). Of these, harbour porpoise is the most susceptible to become caught in fishing nets and is recorded as bycatch in gillnets, with efforts having been made to reduce impacts by this fishery (DFO, 2008b).

Low bycatch rates of seabirds have been reported in the gillnet cod fisheries in NAFO 3OPs, namely of Greater and other shearwaters and of murres, but do not pose a risk to murres at least (Benjamins et al., 2008). Although decreasing population trends are observed for common murre (Templeman, 2010) none of these species are listed as endangered by COSEWIC in the region.

American eel, white shark and northern and spotted wolffish are also listed by COSEWIC in the region and leatherback turtle is considered to be endangered besides also being at risk of fishing gear entanglement (DFO, 2008b).

As with other fisheries in this area management measures including; at-sea observation, gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate PET species interactions (DFO, 2006 & 2010a,b,c).

Canada 3P
Canada
Traps

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) are: blue whale (endangered), grey whale (extirpated), harbour porpoise (of special concern), north Atlantic right whale (endangered) and Sowery’s beaked whale (of special concern), although the assessments of their status are up to six years old (DFO, 2008). Of these, harbour porpoise is the most susceptible to become caught in fishing nets and is recorded as bycatch in gillnets, with efforts having been made to reduce impacts by this fishery (DFO, 2008b).

Fixed gear however tends to have little PET species interactions. When it does occur live relase is usualy possible in most circumstances additionally there are gear modifications and closed areas/seasons, are in place to mitigate any PET species interactions (2010b).

Gillnets and entangling nets

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) are: blue whale (endangered), grey whale (extirpated), harbour porpoise (of special concern), north Atlantic right whale (endangered) and Sowery’s beaked whale (of special concern), although the assessments of their status are up to six years old (DFO, 2008). Of these, harbour porpoise is the most susceptible to become caught in fishing nets and is recorded as bycatch in gillnets, with efforts having been made to reduce impacts by this fishery (DFO, 2008b).

Low bycatch rates of seabirds have been reported in the gillnet cod fisheries in NAFO 3OPs, namely of Greater and other shearwaters and of murres, but do not pose a risk to murres at least (Benjamins et al., 2008). Although decreasing population trends are observed for common murre (Templeman, 2010) none of these species are listed as endangered by COSEWIC in the region.

American eel, white shark and northern and spotted wolffish are also listed by COSEWIC in the region and leatherback turtle is considered to be endangered besides also being at risk of fishing gear entanglement (DFO, 2008b).

As with other fisheries in this area management measures including; at-sea observation, gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate PET species interactions (2010c).

Longlines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) are: blue whale (endangered), grey whale (extirpated), harbour porpoise (of special concern), north Atlantic right whale (endangered) and Sowery’s beaked whale (of special concern), although the assessments of their status are up to six years old (DFO, 2008). Of these, harbour porpoise is the most susceptible to become caught in fishing nets and is recorded as bycatch in gillnets, with efforts having been made to reduce impacts by this fishery (DFO, 2008b).

Moderate bycatch rates of seabirds have been reported in the longline cod fisheries in NAFO 3OPs, namely of Greater and other shearwaters and of murres, but do not pose a risk to murres at least (Benjamins et al., 2008). Although decreasing population trends are observed for common murre (Templeman, 2010) none of these species are listed as endangered by COSEWIC in the region.

American eel, white shark and northern and spotted wolffish are also listed by COSEWIC in the region and leatherback turtle is considered to be endangered besides also being at risk of fishing gear entanglement (DFO, 2008b).

As with other fisheries in this area management measures including; at-sea observation, gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate PET species interactions (2010c).

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) are: blue whale (endangered), grey whale (extirpated), harbour porpoise (of special concern), north Atlantic right whale (endangered) and Sowery’s beaked whale (of special concern), although the assessments of their status are up to six years old (DFO, 2008). Of these, harbour porpoise is the most susceptible to become caught in fishing nets and is recorded as bycatch in gillnets, with efforts having been made to reduce impacts by this fishery (DFO, 2008b).

Very low bycatch rates of seabirds have been reported in the hand line cod fisheries in NAFO 3OPs, and little if any marine mammal bycatch as been reported (2010a).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) are: blue whale (endangered), grey whale (extirpated), harbour porpoise (of special concern), north Atlantic right whale (endangered) and Sowery’s beaked whale (of special concern), although the assessments of their status are up to six years old (DFO, 2008). Of these, harbour porpoise is the most susceptible to become caught in fishing nets and is recorded as bycatch in gillnets, with efforts having been made to reduce impacts by this fishery (DFO, 2008b).

Low bycatch rates of marine mammals is usual in trawl fisheries, and little of no bycatch of sea birds is observed. Turtles can be a concern in this fishery however. Because of that, as well as interactions with protected fish species, management measures including; at-sea observation, gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate PET species interactions (DFO, 2006).

OTHER TARGET AND BYCATCH SPECIES

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Northern and spotted wolffish and leatherback turtle caught as bycatch must be released in the same location and reported as part of the monitoring of the recovery of these species (DFO, 2009c). Dogfish and lumpfish must also be returned to the water, as must smaller Atlantic halibut, Winter flounder and American plaice (DFO, 2009c).

Other groundfish fished in the same area are Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut, monkfish, redfish, skate, white hake and Winter flounder (DFO, 2009c), but it’s unclear if they are incidentally caught by the cod fishery. Retained bycatch rates of Pollock, American plaice, haddock, sharks, Atlantic wolffish and greysole are regulated in the groundfish fisheries. Bycatch of hake by gillnet is not regulated in the directed cod fishery (DFO, 2009c). Overall bycatch is accounted for by at sea and dockside monitoring, with catch going against other regulated species quotas.

Canada 3P
Canada
Traps

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Northern and spotted wolffish and leatherback turtle caught as bycatch must be released in the same location and reported as part of the monitoring of the recovery of these species (DFO, 2009c). Dogfish and lumpfish must also be returned to the water, as must smaller Atlantic halibut, Winter flounder and American plaice (DFO, 2009c).

Other groundfish fished in the same area are Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut, monkfish, redfish, skate, white hake and Winter flounder (DFO, 2009c), but it’s unclear if they are incidentally caught by the cod fishery. Retained bycatch rates of Pollock, American plaice, haddock, sharks, Atlantic wolffish and greysole are regulated in the groundfish fisheries.Overall bycatch is accounted for by at sea and dockside monitoring, with catch going against other regulated species quotas. In general bycatch in the fixed gear fishery can be released alive (DFO, 2010a).

Gillnets and entangling nets

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Northern and spotted wolffish and leatherback turtle caught as bycatch must be released in the same location and reported as part of the monitoring of the recovery of these species (DFO, 2009c). Dogfish and lumpfish must also be returned to the water, as must smaller Atlantic halibut, Winter flounder and American plaice (DFO, 2009c).

Other groundfish fished in the same area are Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut, monkfish, redfish, skate, white hake and Winter flounder (DFO, 2009c), but it’s unclear if they are incidentally caught by the cod fishery. Retained bycatch rates of Pollock, American plaice, haddock, sharks, Atlantic wolffish and greysole are regulated in the groundfish fisheries. Bycatch of hake by gillnet is not regulated in the directed cod fishery (DFO, 2009c). Overall bycatch is accounted for by at sea and dockside monitoring, with catch going against other regulated species quotas.

Longlines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Northern and spotted wolffish and leatherback turtle caught as bycatch must be released in the same location and reported as part of the monitoring of the recovery of these species (DFO, 2009c). Dogfish and lumpfish must also be returned to the water, as must smaller Atlantic halibut, Winter flounder and American plaice (DFO, 2009c).

Other groundfish fished in the same area are Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut, monkfish, redfish, skate, white hake and Winter flounder (DFO, 2009c), but it’s unclear if they are incidentally caught by the cod fishery. Retained bycatch rates of Pollock, American plaice, haddock, sharks, Atlantic wolffish and greysole are regulated in the groundfish fisheries. Overall bycatch is accounted for by at sea and dockside monitoring, with catch going against other regulated species quotas.

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Northern and spotted wolffish and leatherback turtle caught as bycatch must be released in the same location and reported as part of the monitoring of the recovery of these species (DFO, 2009c). Dogfish and lumpfish must also be returned to the water, as must smaller Atlantic halibut, Winter flounder and American plaice (DFO, 2009c).

Other groundfish fished in the same area are Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut, monkfish, redfish, skate, white hake and Winter flounder (DFO, 2009c), but it’s unclear if they are incidentally caught by the cod fishery. Retained bycatch rates of Pollock, American plaice, haddock, sharks, Atlantic wolffish and greysole are regulated in the groundfish fisheries.Overall bycatch is accounted for by at sea and dockside monitoring, with catch going against other regulated species quotas.

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Northern and spotted wolffish and leatherback turtle caught as bycatch must be released in the same location and reported as part of the monitoring of the recovery of these species (DFO, 2009c). Dogfish and lumpfish must also be returned to the water, as must smaller Atlantic halibut, Winter flounder and American plaice (DFO, 2009c).

Other groundfish fished in the same area are Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut, monkfish, redfish, skate, white hake and Winter flounder (DFO, 2009c), but it’s unclear if they are incidentally caught by the cod fishery. Retained bycatch rates of Pollock, American plaice, haddock, sharks, Atlantic wolffish and greysole are regulated in the groundfish fisheries. Overall bycatch can be significant in trawl fisheries especially (DFO, 2006). Much of the bycatch is accounted for by at sea and dockside monitoring, with catch going against other regulated species quotas. there are also other management measures in place to reduce the effects of bycatch for the trawl fishery.

HABITAT

Last updated on 4 August 2014

The impact of the fishing gears used in cod fisheries on the habitat is acknowledged as an issue due to be addressed (DFO, 2008a).

Overall habitat damage by trawl and glilnet gear can be high, while long-line and fixed gear fisheries have little impact.However aswith other fisheries in this area, management measures including;gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate habitat impacts to sensitive areas interactions (DFO, 2006a & 2010a,b,c).

Canada 3P
Canada
Traps

Last updated on 4 August 2014

The impact of the fishing gears used in cod fisheries on the habitat is acknowledged as an issue due to be addressed (DFO, 2008a).

Fixed gear in general has limited habitat impact, and what little may occur is mitigated via management processes (DFO, 2010a).

Gillnets and entangling nets

Last updated on 4 August 2014

The impact of the fishing gears used in cod fisheries on the habitat is acknowledged as an issue due to be addressed (DFO, 2008a).

Overall habitat damageglilnet gear can be high particularity in high valued deep water corals.However aswith other fisheries in this area, management measures including;gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate habitat impacts to sensitive areas interactions (DFO, 2010c).

Longlines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

The impact of the fishing gears used in cod fisheries on the habitat is acknowledged as an issue due to be addressed (DFO, 2008a).

Overall habitat damage by long-line is small, but some impact is possible.However aswith other fisheries in this area, management measures including;gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate habitat impacts to sensitive areas interactions (DFO, 2010c).

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Overall habitat damage by hook and line gear is low.However aswith other fisheries in this area, management measures including;gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate habitat impacts to sensative areas interactions (DFO, 2010a).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 4 August 2014

Overall habitat damage by trawl gear can be high particularly for high value coral habitats.However aswith other fisheries in this area, management measures including;gear modifications, closed areas and seasons, are in place to mitigate habitat impacts to sensitive areas interactions (DFO, 2006a).

MARINE RESERVES

Last updated on 4 August 2014

An Ecological Reserve has been in place on Cape St. Mary since 1980 but no restrictions are imposed on fishing (Wood, 2007). Four Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Placentia Bay Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area (LOMA) are within Division 3Ps. Of these, Placentia Bay Extension was designated due to its importance as the largest cod spawning stock of the NW Atlantic, and Burgeo Bank due to its cod spawning aggregations and mixing of the 3Pn4RS and 3Ps cod stocks (DFO, 2009c). Inner Placentia Bay is closed to all groundfish fishing from January 1 to May 2 to protect over-wintering and spawning cod. The St. Pierre Bank/Halibut Channel area is closed to directed cod fisheries from March 1 to June 30 and inshore areas (3Ps- a, b, c) are closed from March 1 to May 31 to protect spawning cod (DFO, 2008a). The Burgeo Bank area is closed from November 15 to April 15 to protect the 3Pn4RS stock during its migrations(DFO, 2008a).

Two 3Ps EBSAs – St. Pierre Bank and Laurentian Channel – are short-listed as one of the LOMA areas which will be nominated as a MPA by2012 (DFO, 2009c).

Canada 3P
Canada
Traps

Last updated on 4 August 2014

An Ecological Reserve has been in place on Cape St. Mary since 1980 but no restrictions are imposed on fishing (Wood, 2007). Four Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Placentia Bay Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area (LOMA) are within Division 3Ps. Of these, Placentia Bay Extension was designated due to its importance as the largest cod spawning stock of the NW Atlantic, and Burgeo Bank due to its cod spawning aggregations and mixing of the 3Pn4RS and 3Ps cod stocks (DFO, 2009c). Inner Placentia Bay is closed to all groundfish fishing from January 1 to May 2 to protect over-wintering and spawning cod. The St. Pierre Bank/Halibut Channel area is closed to directed cod fisheries from March 1 to June 30 and inshore areas (3Ps- a, b, c) are closed from March 1 to May 31 to protect spawning cod (DFO, 2008a). The Burgeo Bank area is closed from November 15 to April 15 to protect the 3Pn4RS stock during its migrations(DFO, 2008a).

Two 3Ps EBSAs – St. Pierre Bank and Laurentian Channel – are short-listed as one of the LOMA areas which will be nominated as a MPA by2012 (DFO, 2009c).

Hooks and lines

Last updated on 4 August 2014

An Ecological Reserve has been in place on Cape St. Mary since 1980 but no restrictions are imposed on fishing (Wood, 2007). Four Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Placentia Bay Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area (LOMA) are within Division 3Ps. Of these, Placentia Bay Extension was designated due to its importance as the largest cod spawning stock of the NW Atlantic, and Burgeo Bank due to its cod spawning aggregations and mixing of the 3Pn4RS and 3Ps cod stocks (DFO, 2009c). Inner Placentia Bay is closed to all groundfish fishing from January 1 to May 2 to protect over-wintering and spawning cod. The St. Pierre Bank/Halibut Channel area is closed to directed cod fisheries from March 1 to June 30 and inshore areas (3Ps- a, b, c) are closed from March 1 to May 31 to protect spawning cod (DFO, 2008a). The Burgeo Bank area is closed from November 15 to April 15 to protect the 3Pn4RS stock during its migrations(DFO, 2008a).

Two 3Ps EBSAs – St. Pierre Bank and Laurentian Channel – are short-listed as one of the LOMA areas which will be nominated as a MPA by2012 (DFO, 2009c).

Bottom trawls

Last updated on 4 August 2014

An Ecological Reserve has been in place on Cape St. Mary since 1980 but no restrictions are imposed on fishing (Wood, 2007). Four Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Placentia Bay Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area (LOMA) are within Division 3Ps. Of these, Placentia Bay Extension was designated due to its importance as the largest cod spawning stock of the NW Atlantic, and Burgeo Bank due to its cod spawning aggregations and mixing of the 3Pn4RS and 3Ps cod stocks (DFO, 2009c). Inner Placentia Bay is closed to all groundfish fishing from January 1 to May 2 to protect over-wintering and spawning cod. The St. Pierre Bank/Halibut Channel area is closed to directed cod fisheries from March 1 to June 30 and inshore areas (3Ps- a, b, c) are closed from March 1 to May 31 to protect spawning cod (DFO, 2008a). The Burgeo Bank area is closed from November 15 to April 15 to protect the 3Pn4RS stock during its migrations(DFO, 2008a).

Two 3Ps EBSAs – St. Pierre Bank and Laurentian Channel – are short-listed as one of the LOMA areas which will be nominated as a MPA by2012 (DFO, 2009c).

FishSource Scores

SELECT SCORES

MANAGEMENT QUALITY

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers have set a rebuilding threshold as twice the biomass in 1994. However this is qualitative and not based on stock productivity. An initial analysis suggest that this approach is precautionary on an interim basis (DFO, 2015). A target fishing mortality rate has not been adopted.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

Managers have set quotas appropriately.

As calculated for 2014 data.

This measures the Catch as a percentage of the Set TAC.

The Catch is 2.40 ('000 t). The Set TAC is 13.2 ('000 t) .

The underlying Catch/Set TAC for this index is 18.1%.

STOCK HEALTH:

As calculated for 2014 data.

This measures the SSB as a percentage of the SSB=SSB40%.

The SSB is 1.59 ('000 t). The SSB=SSB40% is 2.00 .

The underlying SSB/SSB=SSB40% for this index is 79.5%.

As calculated for 2015 data.

The score is ≥ 6.

A one-year projection indicates a very low probability of SSB falling below its limit reference point at current total mortality rates, but these are flagged as being a source of concern as they are higher then the time series median (DFO, 2015)

HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE RISK

High Medium Low
No data available for recruitment
DATA NOTES

1) No target fishing mortality is known for this fishery thus scores 1 and 5 cannot be computed and have been assigned qualitative scores based on available information for the fishery (mouse-over scores for details).
2) Recent assessments have not provided quantitative advice on appropriate catch levels for this stock.
3) SSB in the scores data sheet is relative to Blrp (SSB in 1994) (DFO, 2015). Total mortality (ages 5-10) is used as a proxy of fishing mortality.
4) Estimates of Canadian recreational fishing catches are not available (DFO, 2013a & 2014).
5) Most recent year’s catch and landing data are preliminary.
6) Catch and quota are on the fishing rather than calendar year.
7) A quota of 13,495 t has been advised to 15-16 FY, but has not been set by managers as of yet.

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Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs)

No related FIPs

Certifications

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

SELECT MSC

NAME

Canada/Newfoundland 3Ps cod

STATUS

Suspended on 12 May 2017

SCORES

Principle Level Scores:

Principle Score
Principle 1 – Target Species  83.8
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Handline 81.3
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Demersal longline 80.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Demersal gillnet 81.7
Principle 2 - Ecosystem - Mobile bottom gears (otter trawl + Danish seine) 83.3
Principle 3 – Management System - Mobile bottom gears 85.4
Principle 3 – Management System - Other gears 83.4

Certification Type:

Sources

Credits

SFP is thankful to Brian Healey (DFO, Canada) who provided information for this fishery profile.

  1. Benjamins, S., D.W. Kulka, J. Lawson, 2008. Incidental catch of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador gillnet fisheries, 2001-2003. Endangered Species Research Vol. 5:149-160.http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr2008/5/n005p149.pdf
  2. Bjordal A, 2002. In: A Fishery Manager's Guidebook - Management Measures and Their Application. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper T424, Cochrane K L (ed). http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y3427E/y3427e00.htm#Contents
  3. Brattey, J. and B. P. Healey. 2006. Exploitation of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in NAFO Subdivision 3Ps: estimates from mark-recapture experiments for the October 2006 assessment. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2006/082.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2006/RES2006_082_E.pdf
  4. Brattey, J., Cadigan, N.G., Healey, B.P., Lilly, G.R., Murphy, E.F., Shelton, P.A., Mahé, J.-C. 2004. An assessment of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Subdivision 3Ps in October 2004. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2004/083.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2004/RES2004_083_E.pdf
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Appended content

  1. Bjordal, Å., 2002. The use of technical measures in responsible fisheries: regulation of fishing gear. In: Cochrane, K.L. (ed.), 2002. A fishery manager’s guidebook. Management measures and their application. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 424. Rome, FAO. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3427e/y3427e00.pdf
  2. DFO, 2008b. Aquatic Species at Risk. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/species-especes/search-location-recherche-endroit-eng.htm
  3. DFO. 2010a. Potential impacts of fishing gears (excluding mobile bottom-contacting gears) on marine habitats and communities. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/003.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/340622.pdf
  4. DFO, 2010a. Stock Assessment of Subdivision 3Ps cod, October 2010. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Report 2010/067.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/sar-as/2010/2010_067_e.pdf
  5. DFO, 2010b. Potential Impacts of Fishing Gears (Excluding Mobile Bottom-Contacting Gears) On Marine Habitats and Communities. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2010/003.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/sar-as/2010/2010_003_e.pdf
  6. DFO, 2012b. Approaches for Evaluating the Proposed 3Ps Cod Conservation Plan and Rebuilding Strategy (CPRS). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Resp. 2012/008. 9 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2012/2012_078-eng.pdf
  7. Healey B.P., Murphy, E.F., Brattey, J., Cadigan, N.G., Morgan, M.J., Maddock Parsons, D., and Mahé, J.-C., 2013. Assessing the status of the cod (Gadus morhua) stock in NAFO Subdivision 3Ps in 2011. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2012/158. iv + 81 pp.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/resdocs-docrech/2012/2012_158-eng.pdf
    1. DFO, 2009. Integrated Fisheries Management Plan: Cod (Gadus morhua).http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/peches-fisheries/ifmp-gmp/cod-morue/cod-morue2009-eng.htm
      1. DFO, 2006a. Impacts of Trawl Gears and Scallop Dredges on Benthic Habitats, Populations and Communities. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2006/025http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_025_E.pdf
      2. DFO, 2006. Impacts of Trawl Gears and Scallop Dredges on Benthic Habitats, Populations and Communities. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2006/025.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_025_E.pdf
      3. DFO, 2010. Stock Assessment of Subdivision 3Ps cod, October 2010. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Report 2010/067.http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/publications/sar-as/2010/2010_067_e.pdf
      References

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